Artificial Intelligence

No, artificial intelligence can't replace the human brain, and no, we'll never really be able to make AI bias-free. Those are two of the 10 myths IT analyst and consulting firm Gartner tackled in its recent report, "Debunking Myths and Misconceptions About Artificial Intelligence."

Myth 1: AI works like a human brain

According to the report, while AI may seem "clever," it's really just a set of software tools and math and logic techniques that can solve specific problems. As an example, image recognition technology "is more accurate than most humans," but the same coding can't also address a math problem. As Research Vice President Alexander Linden, one of the authors, explained, "The rule with AI today is that it solves one task exceedingly well, but if the conditions of the task change only a bit, it fails."

Myth 2: AI machines can learn on their own

Currently, human intervention is needed to create an AI system, Gartner stated. Not only are "experienced human data scientists" needed to frame the problem, prepare the data, choose the right datasets and remove possible bias, they also have to "continually" update the software as new data and knowledge come to the forefront.

Myth 3: AI can be made bias-free

Because of the human input needed for AI, it's going to be "intrinsically biased" one way or another, the report asserted. All we can do, Linden said, is "ensure diversity in the teams working with the AI and have team members review each other’s work." These two steps together "can significantly reduce selection and confirmation bias."

Myth 4: AI will only replace the "repetitive jobs," not the ones requiring top degrees

Yes, AI's capabilities in forming more accurate conclusions through "predictions, classifications and clustering" have allowed it to do away with routine tasks. But it can also help in the complex ones too. The report referred to the oft-quoted example of the use of imaging AI in radiology to identify diseases more quickly than highly-trained radiologists. But AI is also surfacing in financial services and insurance for wealth management and fraud detection. "Those capabilities don’t eliminate human involvement in those tasks but will rather have humans deal with unusual cases," the report noted.

Myth 5: Not every company needs to map out its AI future

Gartner said it believes that every company needs to understand how AI will affect its strategy and could be used to address its business problems. "Even if the current strategy is 'no AI’, this should be a conscious decision based on research and consideration," said Linden. And it should be revisited regularly, he added.

The full report is available to Gartner clients online. Additional information is openly available on the Gartner AI Insight Hub.

Source: The Journal

The world is fast evolving, with Artificial intelligence (AI) at the forefront in changing the world and the way we live. This article is Part 1 of a 2 part series.

An important question: What is AI? For many people, it remains unclear what this technology is all about, so this is a good place to start the conversation. AI is a branch in computer science that deals with the intelligent behavior of machines. It is an ingeniously simulated ability of a machine to imitate human behavior and our conventional response patterns. This is made possible with specific algorithms that make the AI function in a specified scope of activities (according to what the algorithm codes for). This means that with AI, many of our everyday activities can now be carried out effectively by programmed machine technology.

Over the years, a number of technocrats in the field have carried out extensive work in broadening the prospects of fundamental AI innovations. However, one of the prevailing concerns is in the need for a structure where both male and female genders participate as innovators and active movers. This concern comes as a result of overwhelming male-driven dispositions being incorporated into finished Al functioning products. The reason for this is that few women are present and involved in the development of artificial intelligence.

The importance of AI technology: How can AI change the world?  

Speaking on the relevance and implications of AI adoption in the world’s general operational systems, Microsoft’s chief envisioner David Coplin had this to say:

 


It will change how we relate to each other. I would argue that it will even change how we perceive what it means to be human. -- David Coplin

 


The use of AI in organizations, governments, security frameworks, energy and natural resource management, etc., is drastically on the rise. Although AI advancement levels and use may differ substantially from one geographical region to the other, there are clear indicators pointing to the fact that more people are acknowledging the solutions that the technology brings.

This leads us to acknowledging the center of focus for AI developers. Most AI developers are now ultimately directed towards achieving a basic goal. They are charged with the responsibility of building AI models that would aptly substitute direct human efforts. This need comes in recognition to the inadequacies of human labor efforts, which are characterized by inaccuracy, inefficiency and other failures. For example, artificial intelligence has been pointed at to possess the potential for more accurate medical practices. Thus, you can be sure of a more accurate surgical procedure using this framework than is currently available by most humans. Hence, we can say that the opposites of the inadequacies of human efforts are precisely the benefits of artificial intelligence to our world.

However, even though work is ongoing in significantly constructing the usefulness of this technology, truly significant achievements are yet to come. AI is all around us, but often times we don’t notice it. For instance, Facebook uses AI technology for its image recognition. AI has also played roles in managing calendars, political campaigns, and is fast approaching basically everything!

According to John McCarthy - one of the founding fathers of the technology:


The study is to proceed on the basis of the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.  -- John McCarthy

 


This conveys that AI can imitate any aspect of our life, and hence presents a different and more advanced world to help us!

Let's consider some obvious reasons why AI will become pervasive in the near future:

  • AI virtual assistants

Using AI, more people would be able to step down on having to carry out so many tasks by themselves. With a personal assistant AI, we’ll be able to remove the more mundane tasks from our lives. For instance, there may be no need to go to the grocery store, meet with an appointment, or make that deadline yourself as your AI assistant knows just what to do, and when to do it. Consider the value of such help in managing your messages, helping to sort out your wardrobe, doing your laundry. However, the AI would only function according to its developed programming. Hence, one AI may be programmed to work on multiple assignments, while another may be far more narrow in scope of application.

  • Increasing effective labor input with guaranteed corresponding output

Businesses today are realizing the prospects of AI; they know how valuable the technology is for achieving increased productivity. Unlike human labor that can be very limited, artificial intelligence provides more input with a corresponding positive output - on average. The technology is able to achieve this through the use of innovative diffusion, apt and proactive decision implementations, and other roadmaps that ultimately jerks up positive output.

Accenture has estimated a minimum of 40% increase in realizable productivity for companies that would be adopting AI by the year 2023.

Most artificial intelligence modules are connected to other frameworks such as cloud database and storage, big data, cryptography and blockchain, internet of things (IoT), etc. As such, they are able to facilitate the speed and effectiveness of information transmission and reproducibility, from end to end.

  • Improving operational costs

Utilization of physical manpower requires sustained salaries and allowance costs for the company. This directly effects the company's net profits and increases operational costs. An AI operated company, where costs on human labor are largely removed, has huge gains in the long and short run due to impactful salary reduction. Although analysts consider the high costs of AI development, the utilizing firm will likely benefit significantly in the long run, and it may just keep the firm alive.

The prospects for AI future use are enormous. This is already indicated in current use of AI in the medical, banking, gaming, transport, manufacturing, and defense sectors.

Artificial intelligence guru and industry influencer Andrew Ng has likened the expected impact of AI, to that of the impact electricity has had on the world. He had this to say in his comparison:


Just as electricity transformed almost everything 100 years ago, today I actually have a hard time thinking of an industry that I don’t think AI will transform in the next several years.  -- Andrew Ng

 


Elon Musk speaks of the great potentials of AI in bettering the world systems. However, his latest concerns are on the possibilities of an inability of humans to ultimately control its accompanying negative effects. According to Musk, human designed AI may end up becoming a kind of nuisance to man - if it finally becomes pervasive.

But irrespective of how analysts, stakeholders and enthusiasts perceive things, the basic importance of artificial intelligence is undeniable and is adequately acknowledged by all.

AI is expected to be a species on planet earth (and maybe in space too).

Read Source Article: Forbes

In Collaboration with HuntertechGobal

Three Ways to Facilitate a Symbiotic Relationship Between Cognitive Intelligence and Behavioral Sciences

After every conference I speak at about the transformative power of Artificial Intelligence and its potential to unlock untold business value, the one question that often crops up from the audience is.. if AI is expected to perform much of the grunt work in the enterprise world, what scope is there for the so-called ‘human’ qualities?

Is the future of business and technology so deeply intertwined that it leaves virtually no scope in the future for the vagaries of human intelligence and behavior? The answer is quick and simple – absolutely not. Artificial Intelligence, while a great paradigm-shifter in the world of business, is still one of the tools that will be used by humans for making better decisions. At the end of the day, AI will still be developed and used by humans. And maintaining the ‘human element’ in the way it is made, delivered, used and improved will most certainly make it a lot more successful. AI exists to make human life simpler and richer – and hence it is critical that AI practitioners and data scientists adopt a human-centric approach to its development, deployment and adoption. Even the best AI will become quickly redundant without inputs from real humans on how to accelerate strategic decisions and processes.

How do we then build in that ‘human element’ into our Artificial Intelligence tools? This is where humanities-centric subjects of design and behavioral science come into the picture. What is behavioral science? Simply put, it is the study of internal cognitive processes of humans and societies and how these processes manifest into external perceptible and imperceptible actions and interactions. Behavioral science typically stands at a nexus of various subjects – borrowing aspects from sociology, anthropology, psychology and even economics and political science. Its interdisciplinary nature precludes the scale of impact it can have if applied correctly. In technology, and specifically in AI, behavioral science will and should impact how we build, use and interact with technology.

 

I see primarily three key areas where the symbiosis of AI-led cognitive intelligence systems and behavioral science can unlock massive value for enterprises that marry these two starkly different, but extremely complementary fields of study:

Appeal to the Non-Conscious

We have known for nearly a century now that a large majority of human biases, inferences, preferences and reactions are largely controlled by the dark recesses of our non-conscious brain. For technologists to build successful AI products, that are widely adopted and used they need to reach out inside the non-conscious parts of the human brain and orchestrate responses from there.

In AI technology specifically, user adoption is often the difference between make and break for products. Numerous AI products are mostly informed by the data they gather from human actions and their preferences. This data feeds the algorithms running in the background and makes them more sophisticated to better understand their human overlords. To that end, AI products need to have a strong underpinning in behavioral science, so that they can appeal to the non-conscious and improve adoption.

Take for example the work done by Nir Eyal for his book, ‘Hooked: How to Build Habit Forming Products.’ In the book, Eyal writes about multiple ways in which human subjects get applied to technology development. One of them is the Hook canvas – a loop comprising triggers, actions, rewards and investments – which are the cornerstone features of every addictive software you’ve used – from Facebook to Instagram, Snapchat and YouTube. Another is the idea of using the trinity of emotion, features and incentives – extremely relevant ideas to anyone working on building AI products. Another example comes from Worxogo – an Indian startup that employs behavioral design, neuroscience in tandem with predictive analytics to enhance employee performance through nudges to the non-conscious.

Build with Humans

Not only is AI built to serve humans, it is also built by humans. To that end, it becomes extremely important to consider what emotional triggers help define what we build and how we build it. Again, behavioral science practitioners have a key role to play in order to engage empathy in defining the requirements and going about the development of AI. Learnings from behavioral science can bring to light immeasurably important interventions for how we manage and lead teams, collaborate between a team and across multiple teams – all while maintaining a high level of motivation by appealing to a higher sense of purpose. It is worth examining how something as simple as empathy can be extremely valuable in how we build software. For instance, with improved self-awareness and empathy, developers can feel an intrinsic desire to write cleaner code while maintaining proper documentation. Also, given that AI is largely deployed using the DevOps methodology – empathy can be the difference between whether we can build a trust-based bridge between how we build, deploy and automate releases faster.

Beyond the ‘how’ of AI development, behavioral science can also contribute meaningfully to the ‘what’. Currently a lot of concern around AI is related to ethics – will AI lead to loss of meaningful work for humans? What data privacy issues can rear their head when we deploy large-scale data capture systems to improve our algorithms? We need to move the dial from apathy to empathy in the process of conceptualizing software – and knowledge of behavioral science will undoubtedly help AI practitioners develop more responsible AI.

Artificial Emotional Intelligence

The third key application of behavioral science – and possibly the most game-changing of the lot is – how can we apply behavioral science to make our systems more ‘human’? Is it possible to add a dash of EQ to these high IQ systems?

I certainly think there is a huge scope for developing AI that has a strong human bent. Consider the applications we are building today with AI and robotics – companions for the elderly, coaching apps for autistic children, even something as comparatively mundane is chatbots for customer service. Behavioral science holds the key to achieving the holy grail of how we can better balance the human-machine equation, by infusing human qualities into artificial systems.

To enable this, it is important to know who we are building for and what are their intrinsic and non-conscious needs. Behavioral science holds the clues that can complement AI’s ability to eliminate biases, while serving the emotional needs of humans. For example, StressSense tracks when people are highly stressed and helps them avoid anxious situations. This kind of breakthrough research can help in multiple AI applications, teaching them how to behave with humans, while ensuring a strong impact.

As technology providers and businesses work together to build transformational artificial intelligence systems and data science teams, it is very important to consider the human element. These teams would do well to develop a better understanding of whom the AI is built for and how it is used – through techniques offered by behavioral science. Balancing the human-machine equation and powering a complementary relationship between AI systems and the people who use them necessitates an infusion of behavioral science into the process. Ultimately, for AI to succeed, we need both – the foresight of technology as well as the insight of humans.

#AI & #BigData

Sameer Dhanrajani is Chief Strategy Officer at Fractal Analytics

Read Source Article Forbes

 

 

Until technology allows us to upload our consciousness to a computer when our physical bodies start irreparably failing, death is going to remain a real thing. But what if you could continue communicating with loved ones — or, at least, a reasonable facsimile of them — long after they’ve shuffled off this mortal coil? It might sound like an episode of Black Mirror (it is!), but it’s also the basis for a recently announced research project being carried out at India’s Shree Devi Institute of Technology.

Researchers Shriya Devadiga and Bhakthi Shetty have been investigating how a chatbot could be made to duplicate a person’s personality digitally, granting users the ability to chat with an A.I. approximation of an individual, such as a family member, who is no longer around.

For their study, the researchers used Replika A.I., an app created by Russian coder Euginia Kuyda. Replika trains a chatbot designed to replicate an individual’s communication patterns by using their digital conversations as training data. Through pattern matching, the more you chat to your Replika A.I. chatbot, the more its sentences sound like something that you would say. Or, in the case of Devadiga and Shetty’s proposal, something that your deceased relative, loved one or friend might say.

“Something such as this could help people to overcome their trauma after losing their beloveds”

This could be achieved by feeding it the sum total of an individual’s available social media presence, tweets, emails, and any other relevant information, to produce a virtual entity that is as close to indistinguishable from them as possible. Think of it like a Turing Test with a touch of Frankensteinthrown in for good measure.

“[Something such as this could help] people to overcome their trauma after losing their beloveds, is what this use case serves,” Shetty told Digital Trends. “In a fast growing world full of technologies — and especially a booming [field like] artificial intelligence — I think this would prove desirable. Because in such a world, nobody would like to spend most of their time depressed or mourning over their loss … Now this could be chilling, but that’s the truth.”

A research paper describing the Shree Devi Institute of Technology project was recently published in the Asian Journal of Convergence of Technology. Unfortunately, as fascinating as the concept of virtual immortality might sound, at present the project remains a hypothetical one; a peer-reviewed version of the kind of conversation a couple of stoned roboticists might have at 2 o’clock in the morning.

NOT THE ONLY EXAMPLE

This isn’t the first time that the idea has been brought up, however — with varying degrees of complexity. Given the somewhat unsettling nature of the idea, a number of companies have tried to tap into this nascent netherworld market. This ranges from efforts like Google’s Inactive Account Manager(“Make a plan for your Google Account if you pass away”) and the startup DeadSocial, which simply allow users to bequeath their data to people they trust after their death, to more fully realized attempts to use this data to do something frequently unsettling.

Read the Source Article Digital Trends

#AI #ArtificialIntelligence #chatbots 

IIT Delhi and IBM on November 29 announced that they will join IBM’s AI Horizons Network to accelerate a multi-year research on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. The strategic alliance puts IITD into an elite group of global universities that was earlier represented by IITB as the only Indian entrant. This alliance aims to discover path-breaking AI techniques which can assist organizations to take informed decisions. The teams from IITD and IBM jointly plan to publish their research in peer-reviewed academic journals and aim to open challenges and release datasets to the research community in a bid to identify new research areas.

IBM’s AI Horizons Network

IBM’s AI Horizons Network aims to discover novel AI techniques which can help organizations take informed decisions by being able to logically reason with their AI systems.

With the announcement, IIT-Delhi becomes the second institution outside North America to join the prestigious IBM’s AI Horizons Network. This network brings the expertise of IBM Researchers, top graduate students and a world-class faculty who work together on a series of advanced research projects and experiments designed to accelerate the pace of natural language processing, artificial intelligence, machine learning and other emerging technologies.

The AI Horizons Network projects are designed to apply the evolving technologies into some of the world’s most pioneering challenges, ranging from disease, environment, cybersecurity, transportation and education. The Network addresses the unstructured and structured data concerns required to train machine learning systems in a bid to build new computing infrastructures, to optimise new data-intensive solutions for the emerging digital world.

As a part of the collaboration, IBM researchers will partner with professors and students from the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at IIT Delhi for a joint research which has the potential to benefit a multitude of sectors like Finance, Healthcare and Medicine, and Customer support which together bring complex set of questions and unstructured data into the analysis.

Valuable Collaboration to Drive Research

 With this collaboration, IIT Delhi joins the distinguished list of universities like the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, University of Michigan, and University of Maryland at Baltimore County, Universite de Montreal, and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, UC San Diego, and IIT Bombay. The important focus areas in the alliance include natural language processing, deep learning, computer vision, and others.

The centre for excellence is expected to come up on the campus in the next six months.

Experts Speak

Michael Karasick, Vice President, Global Labs at IBM Research says, “While working with AI systems, organizations require explicit reasoning and comprehension to reach a particular conclusion. We believe advancement in AI can tackle such problems”. He further adds, “We are excited to collaborate with IIT Delhi to focus on this area of research and empower organizations to make informed decisions by infusing key characteristics like reasoning, comprehension and transparency in their AI systems.”

Speaking on the important alliance, Prof. V. Ramgopal Rao, Director, IIT Delhi, says “India has immense talent to accelerate innovation in AI and related technologies. We are happy to collaborate with IBM Research scientists and provide opportunities to our students and faculty colleagues to work on some of the complex problems around AI and apply the solutions to real-world scenarios.”

AI initiatives at IITD

IITD currently offers undergraduate and postgraduate level courses in artificial intelligence. With this centre for excellence, the institute aims to bring researchers across departments, to find solutions for various problems and inculcate AI in their respective disciplines. The institute has around 40 faculty members at present who are working on AI with 10 people working on core artificial intelligence capabilities. With this centre, the institute wishes to create a single platform integrating all researchers to come together on a single platform. Besides this collaboration, IIT-D also plans to offer certificate courses in AI for professionals who may have graduated some years ago and need to reskill themselves to stay in the competition.

Embracing AI in India

AI has become a disruptive force to redefine technology and challenge the way we live. The Impact of AI has been felt in India, as per a Niti Ayog’s paper on National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence, the country has 386 AI and emerging technologies Ph.D. researchers of a total of 22,000 present worldwide, which ranks India on the 10th spot globally. These statistics make the IITD-IBM collaboration a great deal to cheer up for.

Read Source Article  Analytics insights

#AI #IBM #environment #IITDelhi

Page 2 of 3

 

© copyright 2017 www.aimlmarketplace.com. All Rights Reserved.

A Product of HunterTech Ventures